VoIP is based on digital data transmission. This is a process by which the audio data is divided into pieces, and sent me a starting point to a destination.
If a VoIP phone call, and they start talking, the first step in any VoIP call to convert the analog voice signal to digital data. This is an analog-digital converter (ADC). As the name suggests, an ADC into a continuous analog data (e.g. voice) into smaller pieces, which are assigned a numerical value.
After the digitized voice, the next step is to compress the audio data to the codec (encoder / decoder), which significantly reduces the digital data, while the sound quality. The compressed digital data can now be sent over the Internet.
The data stream to be broken into smaller pieces, called “package” which includes in addition to the audio data contains information about the origin, destination, and a time stamp that allows you to reconstruct the proper order.
All data sent over the Internet encapsulated in ‘layers’ which aid in the proper movement. For example, web sites on the Internet Protocol (IP) network layer gives an origin and destination address, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) transport layer to create a connection between two computers, and the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), as an application layer to the Web browser to display the page correctly.
Most VoIP uses the transport layer called User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which is faster than TCP. The most commonly used application layer is the so-called real-time transport protocol (RTP) – originally a supplier of audio and video over the Internet. RTP provides information about the sequence of data packets, so they can reconstruct the proper order at their destination.
RTP can drop the packets if you do not receive a certain amount of time. This is necessary for telephone conversations, as if waiting for the phone’s software package for all new information is received before the assemblies were unacceptable delays in the audio stream.
Although some packets dropped, it usually has enough information to read the interview. The number of packets to drop the Internet connection speed depends on the distance between the two parties.
For audio, data are transmitted without significant delay, a broadband Internet connection. Many households and businesses have broadband (DSL or cable) so adding VoIP is relatively simple. If the voice data has arrived at its destination, and again in the correct order and converted back to digital to analog, which allows the person on the receiving end of the appeal hearing.